Essay Writing

  • Post last modified:14 January 2022
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Introduction: Essay Writing

An essay has been defined in a variety of ways. One definition is a “prose composition with a focused subject of discussion” or a “long, systematic discourse”. It is difficult to define the genre into which essays fall. Aldous Huxley, a leading essayist, gives guidance on the subject. He notes that “the essay is a literary device for saying almost every thing about almost anything”, and adds that “by tradition, almost by definition,the essay is a short piece”.

Furthermore, Huxley argues that “essays belong to a literary species whose extreme variability can be studied most effectively within a three-poled frame of reference”. These three poles (or worlds in which the essay may exist) are: The personal and the auto biographical: The essayists that feel most comfortable in this pole “write fragments of reflective auto biography and look at the world through the keyhole of anecdote and description”.

The objective, the factual, and the concrete-particular: The essayists that write from this pole “do not speak directly of themselves, but turn their attention outward to some literary or scientific or political theme. Their art consist son setting forth, passing judgement upon, and drawing general conclusions from the relevant data”. The abstract-universal: In this pole “we find those essayists who do their work in the world of high abstractions”, who are never personal and who seldom mention the particular facts of experience.

Tips to Write Good Essay

A good essay will have a relevant heading, an introduction to the topic, a body for description and a brief summary. After this, make a list of bibliography and all the references from where any information was taken.

Note that a bibliography is not the same as a reference list – a reference list includes only the materials you have directly referred to in your essay. A bibliography can include books you have read but not directly referred to (but that are relevant to what you have studied/written).

These tips will help you improve your essay writing!

1.Choosing a title for your essay: Most of the times, you will be given a topic; that will be the title of your essay.If you are given the freedom to choose the essay, make sure that the heading gives the reader an idea of what will follow. For example:

Analyze the Growth of Co-operatives in the Indian Villages in the Past Sometimes you may want to phrase your title as a question. For example: “How has recession affected India.

If your essay’s title is in the form of a question, make sure you answer it and give reasons to support your views.

2.Essay Writing And Email Etiquette

Writing out your essay structure: Making a rough outline before starting will definitely guide you to organize your ideas and make it easy for you to write the essay. It may help to create sub-headings for different sections (which you can take out later if you like).

For example:

How does Article 25 of the CISG compare with English law relating to fundamental breach of contract? Discuss.

Introduction (Points to cover)

  • Area of law – international sales – increasingly important because of growth in international trade
  • What is the CISG – when does it apply / when does English law apply.
  • What is a fundamental breach.
  • What will this essay do -compare fund a mental breach under CISG to English Law.

Body (Points to cover)

  • Provisions of CISG relating to fundamental breach – Arts 25, 46, 49, 51, 64, 70, 72, 73 and key cases.
  • English law on fundamental breach – key cases
  • Comparison of CISG and English Law re fundamental breach.

Conclusion (Points to cover)

  • Main similarities between CISG and English Law dealing with fundamental breach.
  • Main differences
  • Any conclusions or recommendations – which are better.

The structure you draft is just a rough outline and as you write your essay, you may find that you do not follow it exactly, but it will help you stay focused on the question.

3.Essay Writing

Deciding on your conclusion – first: Drafting the essay also includes thinking about your conclusion in advance. If you have made an argue- 221 ment you can always draw conclusions from if in the end. While putting forth your arguments or ideas, you may also write down someone’s counter views. This will help you in showing why you do not support his views.

4.Your essay introduction: The introduction of the essay should give the reader ideas to what it is about. It will also identify any particular issues you intend to deal with in the essay. Try to make the introduction relevant to the body and show why the essay should be read. How is the subject important. The introduction should rouse the curiosity of the reader so that he should want to read more.

5.The body of your essay: The body of your essay is based on the research and analysis you have carried out to be able to write the essay. In other words, your main arguments, findings and information about the title go in the body.

If the title of essay is something like “Discuss this…” or “Analyze this…” you need to make sure you actually do what you are being asked to do. For example, to “discuss”, look at the issue from all the angles and then state which argument you support the most and give relevant and strong arguments point of view is. It is a good idea to look up the word in the dictionary (e.g. discuss, analyze, critically analyze, consider, etc).

While writing, try to make your writing relevant to the point being discussed. You should try to say why any material you include is important for answering the question.

6.Writing your conclusion: The conclusion should be a brief summary of all the points discussed in your essay. If an essay question was set for you,you will answer it here. It should not repeat what has been said already – instead it should summarize concisely the main points relating to what you have found.

Above all, remember – you must answer your essay question or make sure you have dealt with all of the issues that your essay title raises.

7.Top essay writing tips

  • Make use of examples that relate to the issue you are dealing with. It will reveal your knowledge and control of the topic under discussion. Use only relevant material – ‘prune’ out anything that does not directly relate to the question
  • Try to adhere to the word limit. If you exceed the word limit, go back to the essay and either rephrase at places or cut down some points. State the obvious – you might know what you mean to say, but does your reader? Spell out the points you are trying to make.
  • If you are borrowing from an author, give him due credit in the end. Either put the material in your own words and references it or put it in “inverted commas” and references it.
  • Try to brief and concise and do not deviate from the main issue.

Excessive writing would only divert the reader’s attention.

Does not use long unnecessary words just to impress – they are easy to spot and will have the opposite effect. The reader will think that you are trying to show off.

Forms and styles of Essays

These forms and styles are used by a range of authors, including university students’ and professional essayists.

Descriptive

Descriptive writing is characterized by sensory details, which appeal to the physical senses and details that appeal to a reader’s emotional, physical or intellectual sensibilities. Determining the purpose, considering the audience,creating a dominant impression, using descriptive language and organizing the description are the rhetorical choices to be considered when using a description. A description is usually arranged spatially but can also be chronological or emphatic. The focus of a description is the scene. Description uses tools such as denotative language, connotative language, figurative language, metaphor and simile to arrive at a dominant impression. One university essay guide states that “descriptive writing says what happened or what another author has discussed; it provides an account of the topic”.

Narrative

A narrative uses tools such as flash backs, flash-forwards and transitions that often build to a climax. The focus of a narrative is the plot.When creating a narrative, authors must determine their purpose, consider their audience, establish their point of view, use dialogue and organize the narrative. A narrative is usually arranged chronologically.

Exemplification

An exemplification essay is characterized by a generalization and relevant, representative and believable examples including anecdotes. Writers need to consider their subject, determine their purpose, consider their audience, and decide on specific examples and arrange all the parts together when writing an exemplification essay.

Compare and contrast

Compare and contrast essays are characterized by a basis for comparison, points of comparison and analogies. It is grouped by object (chunking) or by point (sequential). Comparison highlights the similarities between two or more similar objects while contrasting highlights the differences between two or more objects. When writing a compare/contrast essay, writers need to determine their purpose, consider their audience, consider the basis and points of comparison, consider their thesis statement, arrange and develop the comparison and reach a conclusion. Compare and contrast is arranged emphatically.

Cause and effect

The defining features of a “cause and effect” essay are causal chains, careful language and chronological or emphatic order. A writer using this rhetorical method must consider the subject, determine the purpose, consider the audience, think critically about different causes or consequences, consider a thesis statement, arrange the parts, consider the language and decide on a conclusion.

Classification and division

Definition essays explain a term’s meaning. Some are written about concrete terms, such as trees, oceans and dogs, while others talk about more abstract and hard-to-define terms, such as liberty, happiness and virtue.

Dialectic

In the dialectic form of essay, which is commonly used in Philosophy, the writer makes a thesis and argument, then objects to their own argument (with a counter argument), but then counters the counter argument with a final and novel argument. This form benefits from being more open-minded while countering a possible flaw that some may present.

History (a.k.a. Thesis)

A history essay (sometimes referred to as a thesis essay) will describe an argument or claim about one or more historical events and will support that claim with evidence,arguments and references. The text makes it clear to the reader why the argument or claim is as such.

Other logical structures

The logical progression and organizational structure of an essay can take many forms.Understanding how the movement of thought is managed through an essay has a profound impact on its overall cogency and ability to impress. A number of alternative logical structures for essays have been visualized as diagrams, making them easy to implement or adapt in the construction of an argument.

Magazine or Newspaper

Essays often appear in magazines, especially magazines with a more intellectual bent, such as The Atlanticand Harpers. Magazine and newspaper essays use many of the same types of essays as those described above in the section on academic essays (e.g., descriptive essays, narrative essays, etc.). Some newspapers also print essays, often in the “Op-Ed” (Opinion and Editorial) section of the paper.

Employment

Employment essays detailing your experience in a certain occupational field are required when applying for some jobs, especially government jobs.

How to Write a Good Business Essay

A good business essay requires a lot of planning and research. In order to get material for the essay, try to search from a good database like EBSCO or Pro Quest where a good amount of information’s easily available.Try also to get some in formation forma company’s website. All this will give you good information about the happenings of the business world.Apart from this, a business essay will appear impressive, when the writer is able to practically apply his theoretical knowledge. For instance, writing your business essay for week one in a human resource course may simply introduce Andragogy concepts. Start with researching a term- Andragogy, which is basically the term for education of adults. When writing your business essay, your report could use a current article regarding how training courses have successfully improved employee retention rates and increased job satisfaction.

Thus you see the how important it is to reveal in your essay that you have understood whatever has been taught to you in the classroom and you can use those concepts. Graba great article or two apply the information, in your own words, to the concept, you are working with and there you have written a great business essay that will demonstrate your successful understanding of the course concepts.Another important factor that helps in writing a good business essay is your knowledge – not just the bookish knowledge; you need to be well read and also well informed. This does not happen in one day, you 225 need to develop an interest in reading. This will help you in forming your own ideas. The result will be a good business essay.

Sample Essays

Note: In some samples, headings are given only as guidelines to structure.Inan actual essay, headings and numbers should never be used.)

Global Business Effort

“Think globally, act locally.”

It is very important to know all the details of the development of the contemporary business to start anything new. The business strategy has to be very well organized in order to take advantage of new and growing markets. Entrepreneurs are interested in this part most of all, because new markets give the opportunity to become a pioneer in some industry.

Nowadays, every single small company has the possibility to take part in global-business operations by means of the Internet. The main trick is not even to start operating in global-business, but to gain the maximum possible benefit from these international business operations. Globalization efforts are strongly influenced by technology and this has to be on count, too. One of the main suggestions for an entrepreneur interested in launching a global business effort would be in the first place a deep analysis and understanding of the algorithm of the market’s functioning. I.T. management is also of a great importance and widely used by various companies in order to control spending and take advantage of volume purchases, share best practices among dispersed locations, and keep tabs on IT assets and regulatory compliance. Most of the global-business operations of companies are focused on business-to-business customers’rather than ordinary consumers’and that also give certain opportunities. Though this is a choice that the head of the company makes from the very beginning. Another way to take maximum benefits from the global-business operations is using technologies. Internet websites are not the only technological way to achieve, many entrepreneurs forget about currency-conversion software, online customs- forms processing, language translation software, and tariff-calculation/global shipping-cost calculation software and many more.

When we speak of the costs of “regulations”, in reality, we are speaking of about costs of legislation as well as regulation, for it is usually impossible, and often not productive, to try to allocate costs between the authorizing statute and its implementing or interpreting regulations. It may result in four main forms: high costs and high benefits, high costs and low benefits, low costs and high benefits, low costs and low benefits. An entrepreneur interested in launching a global business effort has to think over various aspects in dealing with international market. All of the studies of the costs of regulation made today are measuring the expenditures of firms required by regulation, whereas the cost to society of regulation should be measured by the change in consumer and producer surplus associated with the regulation and with any price and/or income changes that may result. An entrepreneur has to achieve his global ideal through local steps. With the help of new technologies, the study of markets and correct business strategy any entrepreneur can become successful in launching a global business effort.”A little step is the beginning of a longways”.

Competition in Food Industry

1.Introduction

Food is an integral part of the human’s life. Men cannot live without consuming nutrients. From the very beginning of the existence of humanity food has been like petrol for human and animal beings. Food is what gives strength and continues life. People have always “benefited” from food and will continue consuming it till their last breath. The contemporary business world revealed that demand always results in the corresponding supply. The demand on food caused the growth of variety of the food products and the growth of the number of companies professionally providing food products for people.It is common knowledge that quantity does not always imply quality. The industry is very lucrative, because people will buy food even during a hard financial crisis, a lot of companies have introduced eatables of a very low quality but in great amounts and at a cheap price. These products are often not so useful to eat.It can be even said the general foodstuffs quality has significantly decreased in the recent years, along with the growth of product quality in a number of major food-producing companies. People nowadays are not so ready to pay much money in order to get excellent-quality food that will not damage their health status. It is natural that those companies that are interested in being on market for many years and have constant consumers have to offer the best quality of products. Basically, as the demand on food is always high the food industry has become a “battle-field” for many companies causing a great competition.

2.The major concern of food industry

As it has been mentioned before, on the key issues of the competition in the food industry is the quality of products. The quality of food-products is achieved through the well-coordinated process of cooperation of food retailers, manufacturers, suppliers of ingredients and food makers (Partos, 2005). If any of these links perform a disorganized and unqualified activity it always results in a damaged product and a damaged product is always a guarantor of 227 health problems of the consumer. The price challenge is a vital issue in food industry nowadays because low-quality products sometimes have a high costs, affirming the fact that this is all about profit even by the price of negatively affecting the people’s stomachs.

This has cause lot of problems in the sphere of the relations established between the retailers and the suppliers. The difference of prices makes the suppliers look for new retailers and rather often it influences the quality of the food stuffs, too. Competition in the food industry grows tremendously and this is primarily due to the fact that the pressure within the industry is growing. The customer nowadays has become more demanding and in case of not fulfilling his requirements to the product it will not be claimed and bought by the customer, causing the company a significant profit decrease. Of course there is such a phenomenon as “minute companies.” Such companies do not last long but are interested in selling one specific type of food product in a rather limited quantity. Such companies are not to be investigated as serious industry competitors but nevertheless sometimes they manage to catch the attention of the customer from his usual product.He may “betray” his favorite brand only once, but if to recall the population of the country the true situation in the industry becomes clear.

Contemporary competition is characterized by the fact that companies tend to look for chemical firms that underproduction-quality in gradients for the product sin order to build new markets. Having a qualified chemical firm as the supplier of ingredients means that the company is able to face the competition and pressure of not only domestic, but also international customers. The aim of the competing companies is to create a high quality product at the lowest possible price Orin other world to find the “golden middle.” The price is an integral factor in the process of the customer making the choice – he needs to save money to feed the family or to pay a credit but needs to properly feed his family. Well, this dilemma has found its solution in the activity of such companies as Campina that realizes that the majority of customers are motivated to shop at discount stores (Partos, 2005). The real situation is that in the time of general financial instability people do care about the safety of their food, but have no financial opportunities to purchase the healthy products.

3.Does healthy food competition exist?Does healthy food competition exist?

A traditional nutrition label nowadays has become a guarantee of sufficient demand on it. Customers get used to certain companies that satisfy their basic needs and offer an appropriate price for their foodstuffs. Such “traditional” brands that have proved their “faithfulness”to the customer over the years may be viewed as companies that are sort of out the general competition. If a man has purchased Mrs. Butter worth for his kid’s morning pancakes for the last 10 years, is a new different syrup able to cause him change his habit. This is the issue of the traditional nutrition labels and their quiet competition that is so hard to win. Nevertheless, this does not by any means imply that the stores should have only these traditional labels on the shelves. In order for a healthy food industry competition to exist a fewer food choice is not a productive option. Such situation will simply mean a lost of many potentially qualified brands, which eventually hurt the customer more than anybody else.

The big issue of the regulation dealing with standardized nutrition labels has resulted in an artificial decrease of the food brands.Though the policies are crated to promote healthy food market competition, such a decrease makes the market weaker and “kills” the growing future food giants. The existing market legislature policies do limit its possibilities. According to Moor man before creating policies legislators must: “Think about the differential effects across firms and attempt to write policy that levels the playing field,”(Moor man, 2005). The fight for customers’ has become intense lately. The ideas for new products are kept in strict secrets that are never to be reveals to a competitor. The giant food companies try to affirm themselves through sinking small companies, which sometimes offer a substitution product of the same quality. The companies have to take decisive moves all the time in order to stay on the water surface.

The market of food products though supposed to be wide in reality’s experiencing competition troubles. According to this the term market had obtained several meanings in term of the recent development of the food industry.The term got one additional branch and that is – fast food industry. So, the fast food market consists of various sellers such as Burger King, McDonald’s and Kentucky Fried Chicken and all the customers choosing this type of food. The major fast food restaurants are mentioned here mistakenly. This problem is a vital one due to the fact that people,being very busy have very little time to cook and prefer buying half-finished food products in stores. So the totality of all the real and potential customers is directed to semi-finished food stuffs. The competition in the sphere of half-finished food products is very strong and is growing with the growth of competition between the fast food restaurants. For instance Wendy’s International, Inc. has announced a decrease of profit due to the sharpening competition in the fast food and therefore in the food industry.

Conclusion

Competition in the food industry is harsh indeed. But nevertheless there are certain things to be done in order companies to protect themselves from unfair competitors. This protection is being completely honest with the customer by performing food and nutrition studies of their products. Selling a food product is not just putting it in a bright wrap and waiting until a sleepy customer chooses it from the rest. It is about lot of actions such as: hiring health and nutrition professionals, having strong public relations specialists. There is no secret in the fact that the competition within the food industry is characterized by discrediting nutritional recommendations given by the health specialists. Well, this is one of the key issues then will work in earning the customers respect and trust. The food industry requires scientific honesty.

Many products are usually no the al thy for the consumers and the quality of the product suffers in the struggle to get more sales and therefore lowering the price of the product. Having several constant food industry leaders is not 229 good either, as they start controlling the situation on the market completely.The customers simply seek for a good product at a low affordable price and the companies play on that providing unhealthy product. The status of competition in the food industry is very poly semantic but is characterized by harsh methods and discrimination of small food companies. Such competition is not just a fight for customers – it is aware!

Canada and International Unions

The contemporary world requires a quite strong cooperation of different countries through lots of kinds of society’s and associations. Being a member of these associations give SA lot of advantages either to powerful countries counties or to the developing countries. Nevertheless it is obvious that being in an international association gives the country the sense of protection and support. Canada has not been as exception and is a member of many international unions.

The contemporary world requires a quite strong cooperation of different countries through lots of kinds of society’s and associations. Being a member of these associations give salot of advantages either to powerful countries counties or to the developing countries. Nevertheless it is obvious that being in an international association gives the country the sense of protection and support. Canada has not been as exception and is a member of many international unions.

Canadian workers founded the first unions and their goals were to make strong economical and labor connections between different areas, to share the information obtained and experience gained, to share the earnings, to support each other during crisis, and one of the main goals was to make the working conditions of the industry workers decent and protect the rights of the workers. This was the primary base and the results this union had were very impressing for it changed a lot in the lives of the Canadians. Nevertheless, every union tries to obtain the country in which it is interested in the aspect of the union’s field. As for industry, by the beginning of the XX century all the movements that were created by Canadian workers were in the dictation of various international unions. As every aspect has the reverse side, in spite of having a lot of advantages, being the member of international unions has given some disadvantages for Canada,too. Besides the local international union leader there is a chief international union leader that is over him.

Throughout the history of Canada’s membership in international unions it can be seen that sometimes Canada was simply was exploited by them, without taking into account the interests of the country itself. The list of international unions Canada has been a member of is sufficiently large: trade unions, emigration al unions, communication and paper work unions, services unions and many others. People that joined international unions are generally of different professions: businessmen, engineers, conductors, carpenters and many other representatives of diverse professions. All these people through being members of international unions got higher wages and improved their standards of living. The way of international unions is often the way of success and as people want to become successful in their jobs and lives they become members of the international unions through entering their local offices.

This step has changed definite aspects of the process of formation of Canada as a strong state.It did make a difference for life in Canada. According to the annual UNO statistics Canada occupies the first place in world in the list of countries to live in on the basis of the most important criterion’s, such as: general level of living, ecology, culture, education and the level to criminality. A considerable percentage of this success is the success of the functioning of international unions that fight for the rights of their members. The popularity of international unions among the 31 million population of Canada is conditioned by the productive results they observed for many years. Canada itself is very attractive for international unions because it presents a country with a constantly improving economy with reduction of the number of unemployed people, the reinforcement of the sphere of services that is about 75% percent of the able-bodied population of Canada. Being a member of an international union in our modern world is a very smart decision, because it helps to reveal county’s potential to the full.It concerns not only the social aspects (labor) but also the natural recurses of the country. The experience of other countries has helped Canada lot in successful management of its resources. Such unions as: the International Gas Union, the International Geographical Union, the International Astronomical Union, the International Union of Mine, the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics and many more have made a big contribution in Canada’s development.

Throughout the history of Canada’s membership in international unions it can be seen that sometimes Canada was simply was exploited by them, without taking into account the interests of the country itself. The list of international unions Canada has been a member of is sufficiently large: trade unions, emigration al unions, communication and paper work unions, services unions and many others. People that joined international unions are generally of different professions: businessmen, engineers, conductors, carpenters and many other representatives of diverse professions. All these people through being members of international unions got higher wages and improved their standards of living. The way of international unions is often the wayof success and as people want to become successful in their jobs and lives they become members of the international unions through entering their local offices.

This step has changed definite aspects of the process of formation of Canada as a strong state.It did make a difference for life in Canada. According to the annual UNO statistics Canada occupies the first place in world in the list of countries to live in on the basis of the most important criterion’s, such as: general level of living, ecology, culture, education and the level to criminality. A considerable percentage of this success is the success of the functioning of international unions that fight for the rights of their members. The popularity of international unions among the 31 million population of Canada is conditioned by the productive results they observed for many years. Canada itself is very attractive for international unions because it presents a country with a constantly improving economy with reduction of the number of unemployed people, the reinforcement of the sphere of services that is about 75% percent of the able-bodied population of Canada. Being a member of an international union in our modern world is a very smart decision, because it helps to reveal county’s potential to the full.It concerns not only the social aspects (labor) but also the natural resources of the country.

The experience of other countries has helped Canada lot in successful management of its resources. Such unions as: the International Gas Union, the International Geographical Union, the International Astronomical Union, the International Union of Mine, the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics and many more have made a big contribution in Canada’s development.

At the same moment Canada has also given some unique possibilities for them.Canada has had a high proportion of national union for the reason of its smart development-strategy. The country tries to get the best it can from the union, to get new technologies, new ideas and to improve the management.This kind of politics has had a very positive influence on the country, for it is considered to be one of the most attractive places to live in the present days. International unions also bring foreign capital into the country, which is a very important factor influencing the economy of the country. It may be said that the changes that Canada went through the eighties, its membership in international unions produced: new technologies, new areas of production, new improved working places, new technical and management personnel.

International unions provide stability and support to the countries they consist of. The membership in international unions appears to be a guarantee of 231 the worldwide protection of the members and a deal that bring a lot of benefits to Canada. Such as: international experience in definite fields, co-operational projects that have a stronger impact on the country’s society than the local ones. It is well known that when countries unite they become stronger; it does not matter whether it is a trade union or a geographical union. The only thing that matters is that they “win” from this union. International unions by means of the know-hoof other countries have helped to fasten the development of Canada, and now Canada can share its own knowledge in various fields with other countries, to.

The membership in international unions is a reasonable action from the side of a rather developed country, which Canada has proved to be. Canada is an example of adequate usage of the obtained information with the maximum profit for the country. It is much easier for Canada to overcome any crisis having support in so many fields. Canada has had a high proportion of International Unions and one of the primary reasons for it is that it brings a positive impact to the country’s development.

Is Money an Effective Motivator at Work

Does “If you pay peanuts, you get monkeys” principle still work

1.Introduction
The word “motivation” in this essay will be used in order to indicate the interests, desires and internal readiness of a worker to apply certain efforts, take necessary steps to satisfy the career needs that are significant for him. If there had been an opportunity to ask the company leaders, owners of different companies,HR-managers or specialists what kind of employees they want to have in their companies, the answer would have been unambiguous. All of them would be unanimous about such qualities as the ability to think and act independently, the ability to show personal initiative, take reasonable risks and ability to take responsibility for actions, professionalism, be picky to the quality of personal work and many other qualities. The question how motivated an employee should be to correspond to this list of qualities-demands and is money an effective motivator at work to make each of them to become an “outstanding” employee.

How does a company find itself in a situation when a worker that has been chosen exactly by the company authority’s starts being lazy and his work turns into a “satisfactory” one. Any malfunctions during the process of employee- selection? Could be. But what about the skill that the majority of the company leaders are proud of – the skill to chose only those with an “eyes blazing”? It goes without saying that money is an “engine” of everything but sometimes it may not be enough to keep this “blaze” in the eyes of an employee.

2.Money and motivation

Managers apply a lot of effort to make the working places of their companies look attractive for professional and skillful employees. It is not enough just to pay the salary now. Money nowadays is not a factor that can make the employee work at his full both at work and even continue working at home. It is simple as that – if a person works in a company only because of money, orris other words is money-motivated, he can be easily “purchased” by a rival. No existing company is interested in letting a valuable employee to work for another company, because it can inflict a considerable damage to the companies. So this is the primary reason why employers should understand that a only money- motivated employee is a potential “vermin” of the company.

Money by itself is obviously not a sufficient motivator at work. An employee working for money only will leave work at the very minute of its end and never do anything above his “duty regulations.” He will never work with the company but always for it. And therefore will not see the difference between working for this or that company because it will be only the matter of the salary- issue. This is the point when the authorities of any company think with tension about the motivation of their personnel. As the matter of fact the majority of contemporary employees search other benefits from work, except their wages.

a.Motivation of the personnel

It is possible to identify four main motivational-factors.In the first place it is the “compensation al plan” which is the collection of material goods,which are given by the company to the employee. The word compensation is the most appropriate because in exchange for these material goods, the employer expects honest labor, time and many other things from the worker. The mentioned above“material goods” provided by the employer includes salaries, bonuses, extra-pays and other financial encouragements. So as it may be understood from the very beginning – money is only one the four major motivational factors and therefore has a ¼ impact on the motivation of the employee.

The next factor that keeps the personnel motivated is the condition of their labor. To make a long story short, it goes about making the working place comfortable for the worker and making the atmosphere well disposed. The third factor influencing motivation is the possibility to achieve self- actualization, to go in for a favorite occupation, the possibility to grow personally and professionally. These possibilities ordinarily result from the investments that the company makes into its personnel, or in other words the material and other embedding into the development of the competency and loyalty of the employees. And the fourth factor is the literal behavior of the company’s management of all levels, promoting professional inspiration, conscious and productive work of the personnel.

All these factors are guarantors of the protections of the company’s interests, represented through the employees of the company. So the main question remains the same – how much an employee should be paid in order to make him reveal his whole professional potential. In order to analyze the capability of money as a motivator at work it is very important to understand the existing general system of payments or in other words the existing way of the “compensation plan.

b.Money, stimuli and employers

The longing for finding a compromise between the interest of the company and the interests of the employees should imply the principle of simplicity and transparency. This means, that the personnel of the company has to have a clear “picture” of the system of payment of the company, in other words to know what action sand result should be financially encouraged and what – not. So, basically saying – money can be a good motivator if this system is clearly set and understandable to the employee. If the model of payment is too complicated, in this case it confuses both the employer and the employee, and becomes the reason of misunderstandings between them. Complicated schemes do not stimulate, but truly confuse the personnel. Each employee should feel that he is very important for the company, even if his work belong to the undermost category. These are the conditions that do make money a good motivator, but it is important to remember that it is not the only necessary motivator that will bring results at work.

If the leaders of the company fail to combine all the listed above factors, they turn to the easiest and quickest, but the most unproductive way of motivation – money motivation. It may be in some way compared to negative reinforcement – brings results immediately,but in the long run causes a lot of trouble. According to Jim Clemmie, only weak leaders use money as a motivator. Basically saying is an employer does not want to invest into the employees in the long run and is interested in the instant, short-live result – than he may be called a weak leader focused on money as a motivator.

hen it comes to the motivation of the employees it is very important to understand the difference between a stimulus and a motive. Everything is rather easy. A stimulus – is an external impetus to any activity and a motive is an internal one. So for instance, the salary – is a stimulus, but the desire to achieve a certain level of professionalism is a motive.

The level of motivation strongly depends on the managers of the company. The level of motivation for every company is the statistical feature,defining in what degree the given motive is capable of influencing the respondent’s choice either to do or not to do the given work. “…But the big problem is that managers have consistently listed money as the number one factor that they think motivates people. So they keep fiddling with pay, bonus, and financial incentives in a futile attempt to find the elusive combination that will motivate people to higher performance”– the words of the Clemmer’s article completely reveal the true situation concerning to question “money as a motivator”.

c.The true “picture

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs has already become legendary. The Journal of Extension has applied this hierarchy to the sphere of employment. According to Maslow’s theory and the possible critical analysis what can be made on its basis of the problem of money as a motivator leads to the understanding that a worker will never reveal his full potential only because of the monetary motivation.

There is a time in the life of every employee when motivation through money plays an extremely important part in his or her lives. The maximum level of the money-motivation is the age of 24-27 years and at the very end of the professional career or in other words the per-retirement time. This happens due to the fact that in the beginning of the career a person strives to become independent financially. And during the per-retirement age a person wants to provide a financially independent retirement. The most vital part of the information given above is that these two ages are the most sensitive periods, when money can be a sufficient motivator. So money as a motivator is productive only for a short period of time and the money-motive cannot move the person onward constantly. It should be never forgotten, that thought money are vital in the contemporary world they are no the only thing that matters to people, especially when it comes to their career and such thing as recognition are much valuable for each given employee in particular.

Conclusion

Money is definitely now a good and certainly not the only motivator that should be used at work. A number of misunderstandings occur when it is considered as the only motivator, because the individual peculiarities of each employee are not taken into account. In order to take into account the individual peculiarities of the personnel, add flexibility and control ability to the system of money-based motivation it is necessary to constantly provide additions to the salaries, but these additions should be clear and for certain reasons that the employee need to know. So the most important is that the system of motivation needs to be absolutely transparent and understandable for the employees and it has to react at the changes in the external and the internal situation of the company.

Sometimes the authorities of the company need to think first before paying an employee because may be it is the time for a “thank your o for your outstanding work” letter. Money is not an effective motivator, because it cannot make the employee works at his full. There different types of employees. Some of them need power, some need authority, others prefer money, and another type will chooses ability and many other preferences. And what is really important to remember that no money will change this needs and money by itself is not sufficient to make the person successful in his career.

Brazil

1.introduction

Brazil is one of the largest countries on Latin America. The only countries that are bigger than Brazil are Russia, USA and Canada. Brazil possesses more than 30 kinds of mineral resources. Its population is more than 160 million people, which makes 2.6% of the planet’s population. Brazil concentrated 2/3 of the whole industrial potential of South America and more than a half of its scientific potential (1). According to many sociology-economic characteristics Brazil is identified as a developing country, never the less is occupies a special place in the list of these countries. Having a huge potential and a sufficiently high level of economic development, Brazil has found a place in 235 the list of the new industrial countries.

2.Geography

Brazil is the country with the largest area in South America and the fifth in the world. The country is situate din the east north of South America bordering with Suriname, Guyana, Venezuela, Colombia,Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina and Uruguay[1]. Brazil, can without a doubt be called the economically strongest country in South America especially due to the storage’s of natural resources. Brazil has agricultural soils and also has rain forests with extremely high humidity. The rain forests are situated on in the low-lying rain forests of the Amazon. The Amazon is situated in the north of the country and the fertile hills in the south. The north of the country is almost not inhabited and the majority of population concentrates in the south(2.51). Guiana’s highlands are the highest mountain range in Brazil and is the home place of the Price DA Neb line. The Amazon, obviously is the longest river in Brazil and the second largest river on the planet. Among other important rivers it is possible to mention the Parana, Iguacu, Negro, Sao Francisco, Xingu and the Madeira river.

As the Amazon occupies a vast territory of Brazil it therefore does not have a significant variation of seasonal temperature. Only the north of the country sometimes experiences frost and snow.

3.Political culture

Brazil is a federation that consists of twenty-six states and one federal district. The biggest majority of Brazil’s population belongs to the Christian religion and almost all of them are Catholics. This is something Brazil inherited being Portugal’s colony.

Historically, the country was a colony claimed by people from Portugal and this made Portuguese the official language. The Portuguese reached Brazil in 1500 and until that moment is was inhabited by semi-nomadic people. The Portuguese converted Brazil into a country of slaves until 1800, when Maria I of Portugal came to live to Brazil. The Queen did not stay long in Brazil, but during the 20 years of royal presence a lot of changes occurred: commercial ports to United Kingdom were opened; Brazil stopped being isolated from other countries (4.24). So at the moment of getting the independence on the 7th of September, 1822, Brazil already had the potential to develop.

The Brazilian Empire abolished slavery in 1888 in the face of Princess Isabel. A lot of European people started coming to Brazil and the industry of the country started working. The 19th and the 20th century, as it has been said above immigrated to Brazil and basically 5 million European and Japanese immigrants became the dwellers of Brazil. The beginning of the 20th century was especially marked by the immigration of a lot of Asian people: Japanese, Korean, Chinese and Taiwanese immigrants(4.67). As a matter of fact Japanese people do not immigrate a lot, and the fact that the Brazilian-Japanese people are the largest Japanese minority in the world does astonish greatly. The majority of the cultural inherits of Brazil are actually Portuguese, due to the fact that Brazil was Portugal’s colony for a very long time.

The southern states mainly consist of European population and the north and the northeast consist of a mixed population including Africans, Amerindians and Europeans. Most of this population is Roman Catholic. No other country in the world has the same amount of Catholics. The modern tendency of Brazil is the growing number of people calling they Protestants. Around 7.4% of the population is atheists. Some Brazilians,especially in the northern states were mixed Africans live prefer following the traditional African religions. Only 1.8% of the population chose Buddhism, Islam or Judaism.

Though Brazil always tried to maintain democracy it was collapsed several times by the dictatorship of Though Brazil always tried to maintain democracy it was collapsed several times by the dictatorship of Getup Vargas. This fact could not affect the political situation in the country.

4.Society, political parties and government

Though Brazil is a country with many natural re sources and a strong economy, still 22 million people experience extreme poverty in this country. The democratic orientation of Brazil, broken by Getulo Vargas was not truly democratic, as it the political system was not in reality what it was considered to be and that is the reason the military decided to find the solution to the situation with their own hands. In 1985 Brazil was claimed to be a presidential democracy and now is a federative republic, though in 1993 there was an attempt to change it either to parliamentary system or to constitutional monarchy. The earnings of these people hardly cover their very basic surviving needs. This problem has always been and still remains Brazil’s’ main problem. It happened primarily due to the fact that there is a little number of middle class representatives. Having a middle class in some Brazil’s regions is almost impossible due to the climate and other factors(2.12).

The president of Brazil is basically the head of the state and the head of the government. Brazil is a federal presidential representative democratic republic with a multi-party system, which everywhere in the world is interpreted as a guarantee of the achievement of the political freedom. Locally Brazil has three political formations close to the population: the Union, the States and the municipalities, which divide the political power. The President, the head of the government is elected every four years and can be altogether elected for two terms. The Union possessed executive power, which is in its turn executed by the government and its head. The bicameral National Congress executes the Legislative power. The system also has the Chamber of the Deputies and the Federal Senate that makes its similar to the U.S. government model. The process of making laws has several terms that have to be followed in order to make is completely legally right.

5.Current issues

Though Brazil has a strong potential its economy is experiencing problems and the country needs a lot of changes. One of the most important problems is the problem concerning the infrastructure of Brazil and the uneven wealth distribution. Brazil has a big debt to cover and for the present moment its size is a record for the country and the situation is not stabilizing. The major part of the national income is represented by taxes, which are constantly raising become the country needs means to survive (3.46). The only solutions are 237 investments, but the problem is that they are made only in a certain social groups and the poor people only become poorer. Though some specialists have positive expectations in terms of Brazil’s economic growth if it is compared to the economic growth of such countries like India it stops being so positive.

6.Conclusion

Brazil is definitely a country with a great potential, but it still requires a lot of changes in order to reveal it and catching up with the economically strongest countries in the world. Being the biggest country in South America Brazil and having economical connections with important countries Brazil will definitely eventually convert into a developed country.




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