What is Essay Writing? Definition, Tips, Forms and styles of Essays

What is Essay Writing?

Essay writing is a common academic task that involves expressing one’s thoughts and ideas in written form. It is a way to communicate your perspective on a particular topic or issue and to demonstrate your understanding of the subject matter.

Essays can take on many forms, including descriptive, narrative, expository, and persuasive, and they can be assigned in various academic disciplines, such as English, history, psychology, and more.


An essay has been defined in a variety of ways. One definition is a “prose composition with a focused subject of discussion” or a “long, systematic discourse”. It is difficult to define the genre into which essays fall.

the essay is a literary device for saying almost every thing about almost anything”, and adds that “by tradition, almost by definition ,the essay is a short piece”.Aldous Huxley
Essays belong to a literary species whose extreme variability can be studied most effectively within a three-poled frame of reference.Huxley argues

Tips to Write Good Essay

A good essay will have a relevant heading, an introduction to the topic, a body for description and a brief summary. After this, make a list of bibliography and all the references from where any information was taken.

These tips will help you improve your essay writing:

1.Choosing a title for your essay

Most of the times, you will be given a topic; that will be the title of your essay.If you are given the freedom to choose the essay, make sure that the heading gives the reader an idea of what will follow.

For example:Analyze the Growth of Co-operatives in the Indian Villages in the Past Sometimes you may want to phrase your title as a question. For example: “How has recession affected India.

If your essay’s title is in the form of a question, make sure you answer it and give reasons to support your views.

2.Essay Writing And Email Etiquette

Writing out your essay structure: Making a rough outline before starting will definitely guide you to organize your ideas and make it easy for you to write the essay. It may help to create sub-headings for different sections (which you can take out later if you like).

For example:

How does Article 25 of the CISG compare with English law relating to fundamental breach of contract? Discuss.

Introduction (Points to cover)

  • Area of law – international sales – increasingly important because of growth in international trade
  • What is the CISG – when does it apply / when does English law apply.
  • What is a fundamental breach.
  • What will this essay do -compare fund a mental breach under CISG to English Law.

Body (Points to cover)

  • Provisions of CISG relating to fundamental breach – Arts 25, 46, 49, 51, 64, 70, 72, 73 and key cases.
  • English law on fundamental breach – key cases
  • Comparison of CISG and English Law re fundamental breach.

Conclusion (Points to cover)

  • Main similarities between CISG and English Law dealing with fundamental breach.
  • Main differences
  • Any conclusions or recommendations – which are better.

The structure you draft is just a rough outline and as you write your essay, you may find that you do not follow it exactly, but it will help you stay focused on the question.

3.Essay Writing

Deciding on your conclusion – first: Drafting the essay also includes thinking about your conclusion in advance. If you have made an argue- 221 ment you can always draw conclusions from if in the end. While putting forth your arguments or ideas, you may also write down someone’s counter views. This will help you in showing why you do not support his views.

4.Your essay introduction

The introduction of the essay should give the reader ideas to what it is about. It will also identify any particular issues you intend to deal with in the essay. Try to make the introduction relevant to the body and show why the essay should be read. How is the subject important. The introduction should rouse the curiosity of the reader so that he should want to read more.

5.The body of your essay

The body of your essay is based on the research and analysis you have carried out to be able to write the essay. In other words, your main arguments, findings and information about the title go in the body.

If the title of essay is something like “Discuss this…” or “Analyze this…” you need to make sure you actually do what you are being asked to do. For example, to “discuss”, look at the issue from all the angles and then state which argument you support the most and give relevant and strong arguments point of view is. It is a good idea to look up the word in the dictionary (e.g. discuss, analyze, critically analyze, consider, etc).

While writing, try to make your writing relevant to the point being discussed. You should try to say why any material you include is important for answering the question.

6.Writing your conclusion

The conclusion should be a brief summary of all the points discussed in your essay. If an essay question was set for you,you will answer it here. It should not repeat what has been said already – instead it should summarize concisely the main points relating to what you have found.

Above all, remember – you must answer your essay question or make sure you have dealt with all of the issues that your essay title raises.

7.Top essay writing tips

  • Make use of examples that relate to the issue you are dealing with. It will reveal your knowledge and control of the topic under discussion. Use only relevant material – ‘prune’ out anything that does not directly relate to the question
  • Try to adhere to the word limit. If you exceed the word limit, go back to the essay and either rephrase at places or cut down some points. State the obvious – you might know what you mean to say, but does your reader? Spell out the points you are trying to make.
  • If you are borrowing from an author, give him due credit in the end. Either put the material in your own words and references it or put it in “inverted commas” and references it.
  • Try to brief and concise and do not deviate from the main issue.

Excessive writing would only divert the reader’s attention.

Does not use long unnecessary words just to impress – they are easy to spot and will have the opposite effect. The reader will think that you are trying to show off.

Forms and styles of Essays

These forms and styles are used by a range of authors, including university students’ and professional essayists.


Descriptive writing is characterized by sensory details, which appeal to the physical senses and details that appeal to a reader’s emotional, physical or intellectual sensibilities. Determining the purpose, considering the audience,creating a dominant impression, using descriptive language and organizing the description are the rhetorical choices to be considered when using a description.

A description is usually arranged spatially but can also be chronological or emphatic. The focus of a description is the scene. Description uses tools such as denotative language, connotative language, figurative language, metaphor and simile to arrive at a dominant impression. One university essay guide states that “descriptive writing says what happened or what another author has discussed; it provides an account of the topic”.


A narrative uses tools such as flash backs, flash-forwards and transitions that often build to a climax. The focus of a narrative is the plot.When creating a narrative, authors must determine their purpose, consider their audience, establish their point of view, use dialogue and organize the narrative. A narrative is usually arranged chronologically.


An exemplification essay is characterized by a generalization and relevant, representative and believable examples including anecdotes. Writers need to consider their subject, determine their purpose, consider their audience, and decide on specific examples and arrange all the parts together when writing an exemplification essay.

Compare and contrast

Compare and contrast essays are characterized by a basis for comparison, points of comparison and analogies. It is grouped by object (chunking) or by point (sequential). Comparison highlights the similarities between two or more similar objects while contrasting highlights the differences between two or more objects. When writing a compare/contrast essay, writers need to determine their purpose, consider their audience, consider the basis and points of comparison, consider their thesis statement, arrange and develop the comparison and reach a conclusion. Compare and contrast is arranged emphatically.

Cause and effect

The defining features of a “cause and effect” essay are causal chains, careful language and chronological or emphatic order. A writer using this rhetorical method must consider the subject, determine the purpose, consider the audience, think critically about different causes or consequences, consider a thesis statement, arrange the parts, consider the language and decide on a conclusion.

Classification and division

Definition essays explain a term’s meaning. Some are written about concrete terms, such as trees, oceans and dogs, while others talk about more abstract and hard-to-define terms, such as liberty, happiness and virtue.


In the dialectic form of essay, which is commonly used in Philosophy, the writer makes a thesis and argument, then objects to their own argument (with a counter argument), but then counters the counter argument with a final and novel argument. This form benefits from being more open-minded while countering a possible flaw that some may present.

History (a.k.a. Thesis)

A history essay (sometimes referred to as a thesis essay) will describe an argument or claim about one or more historical events and will support that claim with evidence,arguments and references. The text makes it clear to the reader why the argument or claim is as such.

Other logical structures

The logical progression and organizational structure of an essay can take many forms.Understanding how the movement of thought is managed through an essay has a profound impact on its overall cogency and ability to impress. A number of alternative logical structures for essays have been visualized as diagrams, making them easy to implement or adapt in the construction of an argument.

Magazine or Newspaper

Essays often appear in magazines, especially magazines with a more intellectual bent, such as The Atlanticand Harpers. Magazine and newspaper essays use many of the same types of essays as those described above in the section on academic essays (e.g., descriptive essays, narrative essays, etc.). Some newspapers also print essays, often in the “Op-Ed” (Opinion and Editorial) section of the paper.


Employment essays detailing your experience in a certain occupational field are required when applying for some jobs, especially government jobs.

How to Write a Good Business Essay

A good business essay requires a lot of planning and research. In order to get material for the essay, try to search from a good database like EBSCO or Pro Quest where a good amount of information’s easily available.Try also to get some in formation forma company’s website.

All this will give you good information about the happenings of the business world.Apart from this, a business essay will appear impressive, when the writer is able to practically apply his theoretical knowledge.

For instance, writing your business essay for week one in a human resource course may simply introduce Andragogy concepts. Start with researching a term- Andragogy, which is basically the term for education of adults. When writing your business essay, your report could use a current article regarding how training courses have successfully improved employee retention rates and increased job satisfaction.

Sample Essays

Note: In some samples, headings are given only as guidelines to structure.Inan actual essay, headings and numbers should never be used.)

Global Business Effort

“Think globally, act locally.”

It is very important to know all the details of the development of the contemporary business to start anything new. The business strategy has to be very well organized in order to take advantage of new and growing markets. Entrepreneurs are interested in this part most of all, because new markets give the opportunity to become a pioneer in some industry.

Nowadays, every single small company has the possibility to take part in global-business operations by means of the Internet. The main trick is not even to start operating in global-business, but to gain the maximum possible benefit from these international business operations. Globalization efforts are strongly influenced by technology and this has to be on count, too. One of the main suggestions for an entrepreneur interested in launching a global business effort would be in the first place a deep analysis and understanding of the algorithm of the market’s functioning. I.T. management is also of a great importance and widely used by various companies in order to control spending and take advantage of volume purchases, share best practices among dispersed locations, and keep tabs on IT assets and regulatory compliance. Most of the global-business operations of companies are focused on business-to-business customers’rather than ordinary consumers’and that also give certain opportunities. Though this is a choice that the head of the company makes from the very beginning. Another way to take maximum benefits from the global-business operations is using technologies. Internet websites are not the only technological way to achieve, many entrepreneurs forget about currency-conversion software, online customs- forms processing, language translation software, and tariff-calculation/global shipping-cost calculation software and many more.

When we speak of the costs of “regulations”, in reality, we are speaking of about costs of legislation as well as regulation, for it is usually impossible, and often not productive, to try to allocate costs between the authorizing statute and its implementing or interpreting regulations. It may result in four main forms: high costs and high benefits, high costs and low benefits, low costs and high benefits, low costs and low benefits. An entrepreneur interested in launching a global business effort has to think over various aspects in dealing with international market. All of the studies of the costs of regulation made today are measuring the expenditures of firms required by regulation, whereas the cost to society of regulation should be measured by the change in consumer and producer surplus associated with the regulation and with any price and/or income changes that may result. An entrepreneur has to achieve his global ideal through local steps. With the help of new technologies, the study of markets and correct business strategy any entrepreneur can become successful in launching a global business effort.”A little step is the beginning of a longways”.

Competition in Food Industry


Food is an integral part of the human’s life. Men cannot live without consuming nutrients. From the very beginning of the existence of humanity food has been like petrol for human and animal beings. Food is what gives strength and continues life. People have always “benefited” from food and will continue consuming it till their last breath. The contemporary business world revealed that demand always results in the corresponding supply. The demand on food caused the growth of variety of the food products and the growth of the number of companies professionally providing food products for people.It is common knowledge that quantity does not always imply quality. The industry is very lucrative, because people will buy food even during a hard financial crisis, a lot of companies have introduced eatables of a very low quality but in great amounts and at a cheap price. These products are often not so useful to eat.It can be even said the general foodstuffs quality has significantly decreased in the recent years, along with the growth of product quality in a number of major food-producing companies. People nowadays are not so ready to pay much money in order to get excellent-quality food that will not damage their health status. It is natural that those companies that are interested in being on market for many years and have constant consumers have to offer the best quality of products. Basically, as the demand on food is always high the food industry has become a “battle-field” for many companies causing a great competition.

2.The major concern of food industry

As it has been mentioned before, on the key issues of the competition in the food industry is the quality of products. The quality of food-products is achieved through the well-coordinated process of cooperation of food retailers, manufacturers, suppliers of ingredients and food makers (Partos, 2005). If any of these links perform a disorganized and unqualified activity it always results in a damaged product and a damaged product is always a guarantor of 227 health problems of the consumer. The price challenge is a vital issue in food industry nowadays because low-quality products sometimes have a high costs, affirming the fact that this is all about profit even by the price of negatively affecting the people’s stomachs.

This has cause lot of problems in the sphere of the relations established between the retailers and the suppliers. The difference of prices makes the suppliers look for new retailers and rather often it influences the quality of the food stuffs, too. Competition in the food industry grows tremendously and this is primarily due to the fact that the pressure within the industry is growing. The customer nowadays has become more demanding and in case of not fulfilling his requirements to the product it will not be claimed and bought by the customer, causing the company a significant profit decrease. Of course there is such a phenomenon as “minute companies.” Such companies do not last long but are interested in selling one specific type of food product in a rather limited quantity. Such companies are not to be investigated as serious industry competitors but nevertheless sometimes they manage to catch the attention of the customer from his usual product.He may “betray” his favorite brand only once, but if to recall the population of the country the true situation in the industry becomes clear.

Contemporary competition is characterized by the fact that companies tend to look for chemical firms that underproduction-quality in gradients for the product sin order to build new markets. Having a qualified chemical firm as the supplier of ingredients means that the company is able to face the competition and pressure of not only domestic, but also international customers. The aim of the competing companies is to create a high quality product at the lowest possible price Orin other world to find the “golden middle.” The price is an integral factor in the process of the customer making the choice – he needs to save money to feed the family or to pay a credit but needs to properly feed his family. Well, this dilemma has found its solution in the activity of such companies as Campina that realizes that the majority of customers are motivated to shop at discount stores (Partos, 2005). The real situation is that in the time of general financial instability people do care about the safety of their food, but have no financial opportunities to purchase the healthy products.

3.Does healthy food competition exist?Does healthy food competition exist?

A traditional nutrition label nowadays has become a guarantee of sufficient demand on it. Customers get used to certain companies that satisfy their basic needs and offer an appropriate price for their foodstuffs. Such “traditional” brands that have proved their “faithfulness”to the customer over the years may be viewed as companies that are sort of out the general competition. If a man has purchased Mrs. Butter worth for his kid’s morning pancakes for the last 10 years, is a new different syrup able to cause him change his habit. This is the issue of the traditional nutrition labels and their quiet competition that is so hard to win. Nevertheless, this does not by any means imply that the stores should have only these traditional labels on the shelves. In order for a healthy food industry competition to exist a fewer food choice is not a productive option. Such situation will simply mean a lost of many potentially qualified brands, which eventually hurt the customer more than anybody else.

The big issue of the regulation dealing with standardized nutrition labels has resulted in an artificial decrease of the food brands.Though the policies are crated to promote healthy food market competition, such a decrease makes the market weaker and “kills” the growing future food giants. The existing market legislature policies do limit its possibilities. According to Moor man before creating policies legislators must: “Think about the differential effects across firms and attempt to write policy that levels the playing field,”(Moor man, 2005). The fight for customers’ has become intense lately. The ideas for new products are kept in strict secrets that are never to be reveals to a competitor. The giant food companies try to affirm themselves through sinking small companies, which sometimes offer a substitution product of the same quality. The companies have to take decisive moves all the time in order to stay on the water surface.

The market of food products though supposed to be wide in reality’s experiencing competition troubles. According to this the term market had obtained several meanings in term of the recent development of the food industry.The term got one additional branch and that is – fast food industry. So, the fast food market consists of various sellers such as Burger King, McDonald’s and Kentucky Fried Chicken and all the customers choosing this type of food. The major fast food restaurants are mentioned here mistakenly. This problem is a vital one due to the fact that people,being very busy have very little time to cook and prefer buying half-finished food products in stores. So the totality of all the real and potential customers is directed to semi-finished food stuffs. The competition in the sphere of half-finished food products is very strong and is growing with the growth of competition between the fast food restaurants. For instance Wendy’s International, Inc. has announced a decrease of profit due to the sharpening competition in the fast food and therefore in the food industry.


Competition in the food industry is harsh indeed. But nevertheless there are certain things to be done in order companies to protect themselves from unfair competitors. This protection is being completely honest with the customer by performing food and nutrition studies of their products. Selling a food product is not just putting it in a bright wrap and waiting until a sleepy customer chooses it from the rest. It is about lot of actions such as: hiring health and nutrition professionals, having strong public relations specialists. There is no secret in the fact that the competition within the food industry is characterized by discrediting nutritional recommendations given by the health specialists. Well, this is one of the key issues then will work in earning the customers respect and trust. The food industry requires scientific honesty.

Many products are usually no the al thy for the consumers and the quality of the product suffers in the struggle to get more sales and therefore lowering the price of the product. Having several constant food industry leaders is not 229 good either, as they start controlling the situation on the market completely.The customers simply seek for a good product at a low affordable price and the companies play on that providing unhealthy product.

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