Letter writing is the act of composing a written message that is typically sent to convey information, thoughts, or feelings from one person or group to another. The purpose of a letter can vary widely, from personal communication with friends and family to professional correspondence with colleagues, clients, or business partners.
Table of Content
- 1 Letter Writing
- 2 Personal Letter
- 3 Interview Letter
- 4 Appointment Letter
- 5 Calling for Written Test
- 6 Order of Appointment Letter
- 7 Show-Cause Notice
- 8 Charge Sheet
- 9 Letter of Dismissal
- 10 Discharge and other Functions
- 11 FAQ
Personal letters are written to people whom we know well and to whom we need to convey some kind of message. Here we can write in a colloquial and informal manner. There are also letters that are neither formal nor completely personal.
We call them semi- formal letters or personal business letters. The tone of these letters is slightly formal as they are related to any type of personal business.
In the friendly letter format, your address, date, the closing, signature and printed name are all indented to the right half of the page (how far you indent in is up to you as long as the heading and closing is lined up, use it to your own discretion and make sure it looks presentable).
Here are some things you can include in a personal letter.
- Your Address: All that is needed is your street address on the first line and the city, state and zip on the second line.(Not needed if the letter is printed on paper with a letter head already on it.
- Date: Put the date on which the letter was written in the format Month Day Year i.e. August 30, 2003. Skip a line between the date and the salutation.
- Salutation: There is a comma after the end of the salutation (you can use an exclamation point if there is a need for some emphasis especially in inform all letters.
- Body: The body is where you write the content of the letter; the paragraphs should be single spaced with a skipped line between each paragraph. Skip 2 lines between the end of the body and the closing.
- Closing: Let the reader know that you are finished with your letter; this usually ends with Sincerely, Sincerely yours, Thank you and soon. Note that there is a comma after the end of the closing and only the first word in the closing is capitalized.
- Signature: Your signature will go in this section, usually signed in black or blue ink with a pen. Skip a line after your signature and the P.S.
- P.S. : Also known as Post Script. If you want to add anything additional to the letter you write a post script and the message after that. You can also add a P.P.S after that and a P.P.P.S. there after and soon.
1234, Main Street
Boston, MA 02123
Recipient Address Goes Here
The Holiday Season Always Reminds Me To Tell Those Who Are Important In My Life Just How Special They Are. You Are Such A Wonderful , And I Want You To Know That I Will Be Thinking OfYou This Holiday Season With Extra Warmth And Good Wishes.
I Hope That This Holiday Season Brings You Peace and Joy. Regards,
It is always a good idea to add an interview letter with your resume since it provides additional information not given in the resume. The interview letter should grab the attention of the interviewer so that you get a chance for an interview.
In an interview letter, every word counts, so carefully select the words that you want to use when writing an interview letter. Before you are called for the interview, a good interview/ cover letters the first communication you have with the prospective employer, so you should spend a good time to prepare it.
Format of an Interview Letter
- Your Name
- Street Address (incl. Apartment No.)
- City, State and Zip code
- Country (if other than the USA)
- Telephone, Fax Number &Email (recommended)
- Company’s Name
- Employer’s Name
- Employer’s Division
- Company’s Street Address (and Suite No.)
- Company’s City, State and Zip code
- Company’s Country (if other than the USA)
- Date of Writing
- (Title) Employer’s Name
- State why you are writing.
- Name the position or type of work you seek.
- Mention how you heard about the opening.
- State the reason for your interest in the designation and also the employer.
- Request an employment application (if still needed).
- Lure the employer by telling how the company will benefit from you and what qualities you have that will meet the challenges posed by the job responsibilities.
- Tell her/him that you have enclosed a copy of your resume (and a completed employment application, if appropriate).
- Tell them you will follow-up for an agreeable meeting time to discuss your qualifications and their company’s needs if they find you suitable.
- Tell them your address and number should they need any additional information.
- Tell them you expect to hear from them soon.
- Thank them for their time and consideration.
- Sign your name by hand (over a typed signature) and use “Sincerely.
Appointment Letter is a kind of confirmation letter confirming the time of a meeting or appointment. If the appointment letter is per taining to the selection to a new position, use a positive tone and give as much detail as possible about the importance of the position.
If other individuals read the letter, it should contain enough information about the appointee’s qualification so that the others recognize that he or she is qualified to fill the position. If it is a letter to schedule an appointment, the tone should be courteous, clearly mentioning the reason for the appointment and what you expect from the appointment.
It should be brief and to the point with exact details like the time, venue, reason and what documents should be carried for the meeting. Any kind of appointment letter should include proper details and should not confuse the reader, Always thank the reader for their time and consideration. Your telephone number and address will of course need to be added.
There are various types of appointment letters like letter to schedule an appointment, confirm an appointment, schedule an interview and confirm the appointment to the new position.
Format of an Appointment Letter
Letter of Appointment
Dear Sir or name if you know it,
I would like an appointment to see you to discuss………… and would appreciate if you could kindly get your secretary to arrange a mutually convenient time.
Yours faithfully, (if you have written Dear Sir)
yours sincerely, (if you wrote his name).
Calling for Written Test
A letter related to calling for written test is the letter sent by the company to the candidate to inform him about the scheduled test and interview. This letter should be as short as possible, very appropriate and precise.
It should mention only the relevant details, related to the time, date and venue of the written test or interview and nothing else. Further more, you try to write as simply and as clearly as possible and not make the letter longer than necessary. Remember not to use informal language like contractions.
- Your Address: The return address should be written in the top right hand corner of the letter.
- The Address of the person you are writing to: The inside address should be written on the left, starting below your address.
You can write this on the right or the left on the line after the address you are writing to. Write the month as a word.
Salutation or greeting
- Dear Mr. Jenkins,
If you know the name, use the title (Mr., Mrs., Miss or Ms., Dr., etc.) and the surname only. If you are writing to a woman and do not know if she uses Mrs. or Miss, you can use Ms, which is for married and single women.
Ending a letter
If you know the name of the person, end the letter this way
Sign your name; then print it below the signature. If you think the person you are writing to might not know whether you are male of female, put you title in brackets after your name.
Format of a Call Letter
[NAME, COMPANY AND ADDRESS, ex.
14 Edith Street,
Dear [NAME, ex. Tom Atkinson],
Thank you for your recent application for employment with
[Name of Company].
An interview has been scheduled for you on [day], [date], at [time], with
[Name of person conducting interview], [job title]. Their office is located
A test will be administered to you immediately following your interview,
which will take approximately one hour.
If you are unable to keep this appointment or if you have any questions,
please call us at [phone number].
Very sincerely yours,
Order of Appointment Letter
An appointment letter gives an assurance to a prospective employee of a position in the new company. A letter of appointment is a significant aspect of every person’s career. So before issuing an appointment letter carefully check every detail and information, so as not to miss on any important point in the letter.
An appointment order must carry the following details:
- Date of Appointment
- Job Profile
- Job Timings
- Compensation Package
- Transfer or Travel details
- Notice Period &Company rules & regulations must be mentioned in the Appointment letter.
Every organization usually designs its own appointment letter format depending on the most important point sand priorities. Therefore, we cannot really talk of a fixed format for an appointment letter.
Sample of an Appointment Letter
We at [COMPANY] would like to create an environment and culture committed to co-operation, quality and responseiveness that permeate every activity. We treat business ethics no different from personal ethics leading to an atmosphere that is exciting, transparent, rewarding and challenging. Above all, we need employees who strongly believe in nurturing a culture of ideas, questions, challenges, feedback and prudent risk taking. It also places a demand upon the employees to be active, innovative with the ability to create, gather and use knowledge.
With reference to your application and subsequent discussion, we have pleasure in appointing you as „Senior Programmer in Indore or in any such capacity the management shall from time to time determine, with following terms and conditions.
Date Of Appointment
Your date of appointment is effective from the date of joining but not later
At the time of joining we request you to furnish the testimonials of your educational qualifications and a relieving letter from the previous organization you are associated with. This is also conditional upon your being free from any contractual restrictions preventing you from accepting this offer or starting work on the date of joining.
You should be entitled for a salary of 15000INR per month consolidated. (Cost of company) you will be on probation for a period of six month from the day of your joining and can be extended depending on your performance. Upon confirmation a letter affecting the same will be issued.
Your current timing will be from 9.30 am to 5.30 pm from Monday to Friday 171 and 9.30 am to 1.00 pm on Saturday. Your weekly off will be on Sunday.
This contract of employment is terminable by either party by giving one month?s notice (30 days) period. The company shall have the right to terminate your employment without notice if.
- You commit any material breach or any of duties and responsibilities under the contract.
- Any particular mentioned in your application is found false at any point of time or found have will fully suppressed any material information.
- You are charged with any criminal offense, which is prejudicial to the interest of the company.
- If at any time in our opinion, which is final in this matter, you are found guilty of dishonesty, disorderly behavior, negligence and indiscipline, absence of duty without permission or any other conduct considered by us as detrimental to the interests of the company.
You will be required to undertake travel on company work and you will be reimbursed travel expenses for this as per company rules.
You should not during your said employment or at any time thereafter divulge or disclose to any person whom so ever or make any use whatever for your own purpose or for any purpose other than that of the company of any information or knowledge obtained by you during your said employment as to the business or affairs of the company and you shall during the said employment also use your best endeavors to prevent any person from doing so.
At the time of termination / resignation, you will immediately hand over to the company all correspondence, documentation, data, software, etc belonging to the company or relating to the business and shall not make or retain any copies of these items. We take this opportunity to wish the very best in your tenure with [Company Name]
Best of luck,
For [COMPANY NAME]
HR – MANAGER
At the time of termination / resignation, you will immediately hand over to the company all correspondence, documentation, data, software, etc belonging to the company or relating to the business and shall not make or retain any copies of these items. We take this opportunity to wish the very best in your tenure with [Company Name].
A show cause letter is a written notice asking the employee to explain or to “show cause” why he should not be given disciplinary action given what he did or did not do. As for whether a reminder is necessary prior to the show cause letter, it really depends on the labor laws of the place where you work in.
In some jurisdictions, the show cause letter itself serves as the first notice. The employee then submits his written explanation and then a second notice is required called a Notice of Decision.
Format of a Show Cause Notice
Ms. (Name of the Employee)
SUB: Show Cause Notice
In spite of multiple feedback / notices (Verbal/ Written) given to you on various occasions to avoid doing such things/ acts (Acts of Violation/ Misconduct/ Misbehavior) you have repeated the same on the (Dates) and we have not seen any improvement.
It may please be noted that this deviation from the Company policy (ies) is a serious misconduct within the meaning of standing orders applicable to you. Your repeated misconduct is despite the fact that your supervisors/ managers have advised you and even warned orally as well as in written for the same, but you have not improved and hence this show cause notice.
Please show the cause why action should not be taken against you for your not coming to office without information within 3 days of the receipt of this show cause notice, failing which company will proceed further in the matter.
CC: HR – Personnel File
SAMPLE SHOW CAUSE LETTER
Date: 12th January 2010
Mr. G. Angler man
House No. 11, Swifts Valley
Avenue Nest land 123
Re: Show Cause Letter
It has been reported to the Human Resource Manager on Wednesday, 6th January 2010 that at approximately 9.30 a.m. on 1st January 2010 (state time and date misconduct was allegedly committed) you allegedly failed to exercise due care and attention in the performance of your duty and the said negligent conduct caused physical injury to a fellow worker. In view of the gravity of the alleged misconduct, you are suspended on full pay for a period of fourteen days (or some other duration). You are hereby required to show cause in writing by 19th January 2010 (minimum of 7 days) why disciplinary action should not be taken against you.
Please note that this suspension is not a punishment. It is to facilitate management’s investigation into the alleged misconduct and also to allow you the opportunity to present your case. If you fail to submit an explanation by the stipulated date, decision will be taken without further reference to you.
A. D. Discipline man
(name of CEO or Head of HR)
Group Head, Human Resource Management
- (signature of CEO or Head of HR)
A Show Cause letter can be used for other misconducts including, but not limited to, the following:
- Drunken and Disorderly conduct
- Intoxicated- Influence of drink or Drugs
- Conflict of Interest
- Falsification of Documents
- Participation in illegal strike/Go Slow
- Soliciting Sexual Favors
- Refusal to be Transferred
- Borrowing money from subordinates
- Sleeping on Duty
- Issuing Press Statements without approval
A Charge sheet is a formal document of accusation prepared by a law- enforcement agency in India or Pakistan. It is distinct from the First Information Report (FIR) (which is the core document that describes a crime that has been committed), usually refers tone or more Firs and charges an individual or organization for (some or all of) the crimes specified in those FIR(s).
Once the charge sheet has been submitted to a court of law, prosecution proceedings against the accused begin in the judicial system. In terms of Business Studies, however sheet is the document prepared by the HR or inquiry commission after getting direction from the management or HR itself regarding an employees misconduct or violation of company rules and regulation.It is the first step for taking disciplinary action like termination.
Charge sheet is a legal document, which is given to an employee when prim face charge of gross misconduct is proven against him. Suppose information regarding the misconduct done by an employee or group of employee is received by the M he employee HR department, it comes under preliminary inquiry of the employee concerned.
Letter Writing and Inter- Departmental Communication over the decision of disciplinary authority within a limited time. Usually it is 03 to 07 days. In this way, the procedure of disciplinary authority completed.
Format of Charge Sheet
PRO-FORMA CHARGE SHEET
EMPLOYEE NUMBER: …………………………
- You are hereby charged with the following acts of misconduct:
- Please take note that a departmental disciplinary inquiry/inquiry by a
disciplinary tribunal will be held into the alleged misconduct
- on …(date)
at … (time)
. Please take further note that XYZ will chair the proceedings.
- You are reminded that you have, amongst others, the right4.1 to be told the alleged misconduct;
4.2 to have a timely inquiry in place;
4.3 to be given sufficient notice prior to the investigation;
4.4 to representation;
4.5 to call eye witnesses;
4.6 to cross-examine the eyewitnesses for the organization;
4.7 to an interpreter;
4.8 to be heard on both your guilt as well asinnocenceaccording to
the appropriate sanction, should you be found guilty;
4.9 to present evidence of all circumstances, on the charges being
proved against you;
4.10 to be informed of the sanction imposed, if you are found guilty.
5.You should inform your legal representative as well as your eyewitnesses of the time and place of the inquiry. Please note that should you or your representative not be present yourselves at the stated time and on the stated date then the inquiry may proceed in your absence.
6.. Should you require an interpreter, please inform before hand as indicated in paragraph 7 accordingly ahead of the commencement of the inquiry.
If you have any queries, you may contact …. at… I, XYZ………………………………….. (full name) hereby acknowledge edge receipt of the per-inquiry.
Notification of rights and summons to attend a disciplinary inquiry and acknowledge further that I understand fully the content of this document and the nature of my rights as the employee of the organization
SIGNATURE OF EMPLOYEE DATE TIME
SIGNATURE OF COUNCIL DATE TIME
To be completed should the accused employee refuse to sign the above form.
The reason(s) for the refusal is/are as follows
SIGNATURE OF PERSON WITNESSING THE REFUSAL TO SIGN
Letter of Dismissal
There are many reasons why an employee is dismissed from work like poor performance, lack of attendance, etc. Whatever the reason, it is the most difficult decision for the employer to make. Dismissal letter is given only if there is no change in the employee after a few warnings. Before writing the dismissal letter, you must notify the employee about the dismissal.
The different conducts that require instant dismissal are brutality against others, threats, sexual harassment; bringing weapons to work etc. Before the dismissal of any employee, make sure to examine thoroughly about the complaint. Examine all records related to employee in doubt including personal files, employment agreements, evaluation, etc.
An employee dismissal letter should be clear and concise and should include all information about the dismissal. If the employee has a contract with the company, employers should be aware and fulfil any obligation they may have under that policy before going ahead with the dismissal. The dismissal letter is an important aspect of the firing process.
It not only gives the employee formal notice but also serves as the foundation for the termination meeting. If it is possible, issue the dismissal letter ahead of time before the termination meetings so that it removes any confusions and the employee cannot deny the receipt the dismissal letter. Dismissal letter should be factual, professional and easily understandable by others. Dismissal Letters must demonstrate since re concern.
Format of a Dismissal Letter
Dear Mr. /Mrs. /Ms. etc
Further to our meeting of (date), I confirm that your employment with (Company) is terminated with effect from(date). As stated at our meeting on (date), the reason for termination your employment is as follows.
Reason 1 – e.g. summary of redundancy reasons.
Reason 2 – summary of gross misconduct or poor performance and what steps had been taken and when, to enable the employee to rectify the situation.
Reason 3 – etc
State clearly individual requirements such as return of company car, equipment, submission of expense claims, etc.,and any other administrative details required.
State clearly actual leaving date and details of notice period, holiday pay, general pay and pension or other benefits, plus redundancy settlement if appropriate.
State clearly how the employee can appeal to the decision – the employee’s rights, the appeal process and appeal time frames.
Please sign, date and return this letter as confirmation of receipt of this letter and any attachments/enclosures.
Attachments/enclosures include copies of all relevant company policies, plus any supporting material related to the reasons for dismissal.
Discharge and other Functions
In terms of Business, discharge means discharge of an employee from his/her employment. In other words, it is to dismiss from or relieve of duty, office employment,etc.
Although many employment relationships are “at-will” meaning that either the employer or the employee may terminate the relationship at any time with or without reason, that does not mean that employers can act in a discriminatory manner. If an employer terminates an employee, even one who is “at will” in violation of federal, state or local anti-discrimination laws, she/he can face serious legal troubles.
An employer who has not followed specific disciplinary and termination policies that are in place can also face a wrongful discharge suit. For instance, the rules of a company state that the employer has to give a notice of one month before firing them form is conduct or for inefficiency, but the employee is informed about his termination only verbally and/or without warning, then, the employee can take appropriate action.
How to Lawfully Discharge Employees
I. Preliminary Inquiry
- Has the employer followed its disciplinary procedures ?
- Is the employee’s improper conduct or failure to respond to corrective suggestions documented?
- Have any representations, either oral or written, been made to the employee about continued employment?
- Was the employee participating in or urging concerted activity?
- Is the employee a member of a “protected group?”
- Is the termination supported by factual evidence? Is the decision accurate and consistent with the policies framed and is it timely, fair and supported by relevant documentation and investigation?
- What is the immediate and long term effect of the termination upon the morale in the department, division, company?
- Is the current type of termination likely to induce employees to seek union representation?
- What is the effect of the termination on miscellaneous business-related matters?
4.Is the supervisor or appropriate personnel manager aware that:
- The disciplinary interview should be private and remain confidential.
- The disciplinary interview should be calm.
- They should avoid name-calling and unsubstantiated charges of lying, dishonesty or criminal or immoral behavior.
1.If answers to the questions listed below are other than the designated one, the employer should re-evaluate the appropriateness of the termination decision.
- Yes/No Expanded Legal Checklist Disciplinary Procedures.
- Yes No Expanded Legal Checklist
- Yes/No did the employee have fair advance notice of the standards by which his behavior/performance would be judged.
- Yes/No did the employee have an opportunity to take constructive corrective action.
- Yes/No did the employee have a chance to give his or her side of the story?
Yes/No do the documents demonstrate that the termination is adequately supported by facts?
Yes/No is the termination fair and equitable? For example: Yes/No would the employee’s termination offend “public policy”?
- Yes/No Terminated for exercising a right, e.g., jury duty, political beliefs, etc?
- Yes/No terminated for refusing to participate in any activity which would constitute a violation of the law?
- Yes/No terminated to retaliate against employee’s reporting any alleged violation (e.g., EEO, OSHA or Worker’s Compensation) to authorities?
- Yes/No would termination of the employee prevent the vesting of benefits in the immediate foreseeable future?
- Yes/No Pension or retirement benefits? (e.g.,within1year)Yes/\No Bonuses? (E.g. within 1 month).
- Yes/No If the employee was accused of dishonesty or serious misconduct, did a fair and honest.
- Yes/No Investigation supports the allegations? Yes/No Areany other employees suspects?
- Yes/No are the witnesss credibleYes/No Expanded Legal Checklist Yes/No Disciplinary action suited to the infraction?
- Yes/No is the employee’s conduct sufficient to justify termination at this time?
- Yes/No Are there extenuating circumstances or mitigating factors which justify a lesser penalty?
- Yes/No does the employee’s prior disciplinary record support termination?
- Yes/No Consistency: Have other employees engaged in similar conduct been terminated?
- Yes/No Timeliness: Are both the documentation and the decision to terminate timely?
- Yes/No is the decision substantiated with facts rather than merely subjective opinion?
- Yes/No if the termination is bides on results of performance appraisals or evaluations, are they objective and directly related to the job skills?
- Yes/No is the articulated reason for the termination the real reason rather than per-text ?
- Yes/No does the employee have a satisfactory or better job appraisal,work commendations, recent promotions, raises or bonuses which negate the articulated reason for discharge ?
3.Representations of Continued Employment
- Yes/No Were any representations other than the employee were terminable- at-will made to the employee? (e.g., was the employee told his job was “secure for life” or ‘’as long as he wanted it” or ‘’as long as the corporation keeps growing”?)
- Yes/No are the representations true?
- Yes/No if representations were made to the employee about continued employment, were there any conditions to continued employment, such as the employee’s satisfactory performance?
- Yes/No did the employee give up any other employment opportunities based on representations or promises?
- Yes No Expanded Legal Checklist.
- Yes/No was the employee in formed that continued employment was dependent upon the corporation’s discretion or business needs?
- Yes/No was the employee advised that improper conduct or failure to correct actions would result in discharge.
If anyone of the following questions is answered in the affirmative, the worker may be engaged in protected concerted activity:
Yes/No urge safety in the workplace?
Yes/No urge more breaks, higher wages or any other benefits for employees in addition to him.
Yes/No urge union support.
Yes/No “Come to the aid” of another employee who was being criticized?
- Did the employee’s protected status adversely affect in any manner whatsoever, the employment decision?
- Yes/No Race
- Yes/No Sex, for example:
- Yes/No General presumptions of weakness of frailty? Yes/No Reproductive concerns?
- Yes/No Childbearing or childbearing concerns? Yes/No Unwanted sexual advances or harassment?
- Yes/No Marital status, for example:
- Yes/No Expanded Legal Checklist
- Yes/No Presumption that employee won’t want to travel or work a shift because married?
- Yes/No Presumption that employees not “responsible” because not181 married?
- Yes/No terminated because of anti-nepotism policy? (If so, is it possible to avoid a supervisory relationship with relative).
- Yes/No National origin and ancestry Yes/No Religion, for example.
- Yes/No have reasonable efforts been made to accommodate the employee’s religion?
- Yes/No Age (over 40), for example:
- Yes/No generalized presumption that “time is passing him by” or that he is incapable of keeping up with technological innovations?
- Yes/No generalized presumptions of weakness or frailty?
- Yes/No Attempts to cut direct costs by terminating employees with greater benefits and seniority
- Yes/No Disability, for example:
- Yes/No has the supervisor discussed with the employee possible ways to accommodate the employee in this job
- Yes/No can the employee perform another job with similar pay? Yes/ No Veteran or Military Duty Status
- Yes/No is the employee being penalized for taking time off to perform military service.
Kinds of Termination
Termination of Employment
Termination of employment is the end of an employee’s duration with an employer. Depending on the case, the decision may be made by the employee, the employer or mutually agreed upon by both.
- Voluntary termination is a decision made by the employee to leave the job. Such a decisions commonly known as “resignation,” “quitting,” ”leaving “or” giving notice.” Some common reasons for voluntary termination include:
- Personal dissatisfaction with job, employer, hours or working conditions or in more severe cases, burn out.
- Factors in employee’s personal life not related to the job that makes holding or performing the job impossible or more difficult. These may include family obligations, education, health or moving to anew location.
- Hire at a new job: Reasons for wanting a different job may be better working conditions, better hours, a shorter distance to work, better pay, graduation, career progression or preparation for entry into a new career or a career change.
- Feared or anticipated involuntary termination: The employee may wish to take matters into his/her own hands in order to leave more honorably. This is also known as mutual consent in some parts.
- Retirement: This may be as a result of the employee’s age (which may vary, depending on job type and benefits available following retirement) or an injury, disability or other medical condition forcing early retirement.
- Depending on the employee’s reason, comfort with the employer and dedication to the job, voluntary termination may be sudden and abrupt without warning to the employer or with a certain amount of notice given Generally, employers prefer that a departing employee provides at least some notice to the employer, often at least two weeks, referred to a two-week notice, Those in compliance with this requirement are more likely to bear-hired by the same employer in the future, to receive their full benefits from the employer and to get a better reference for future employer.
2. Involuntary termination is the employee’s departure at the hands of the employer. There are two basic types of involuntary termination, known often as being “fired” and “laid off.” To be fired, as opposed to being laid off, is generally thought of to be the employee’s fault and there fore is considered in most cases to be dishonorable and a sign of failure.
Often, it may hinder the new job-seeker’s chances of finding new employment, particularly if he/she has been fired from earlier jobs. Job seekers sometimes do not mention jobs which they were fired from on their resumes accordingly, unexplained gaps in employment and refusal to contact previous employers are often regarded as red flags.
- Dismissal is the employer’s choice to let the employee leave, generally for a reason which is the fault of the employee. The most common colloquial term for dismissal in America is being fired where as in Britain the term ‘getting the sack’ is used.
- A less severe form of involuntary termination is often referred to as alayoff. A layoff is usually not strictly related to personal performance, but instead it could be owing to economic cycles or the company’s need to restructure itself, the firm itself going out of business or a change in the function of the employer.
One type of layoff is the aggressive layoff. In such a situation, the employee is laid off for a just cause, but not replaced as the job is eliminated.
- Often, layoffs occur as a result of “down sizing”, “reduction in force” or “redundancy”. These are not technically classified as firings; laid-off employees jobs are terminated and not re-filled, because either the company wishes to reduce its size or operations or otherwise lacks the economic stability to retain the position.
In some cases, a laid-off employee may be offered a re-hire by his/her respective company, though by this time, s/he may have found a new job.
- However, layoff may be specifically addressed and defined differently in the articles of a contract in the case of union work.
3.Some terminations occurs a result of mutual agreement between the employer and employee. When this happens, it is sometimes debatable if the termination was truly mutual. In many of these cases, it was originally the employer’s wish for the employee to depart, but the employer offered the mutual termination agreement in order to soften the firing (as in a forced resignation). But there are also times when a termination date is agreed upon before the employment starts (as in an employment contract).
- Some types of termination by mutual agreement include: The end of an employment contract for a specified period of time (such 183 as an internship)
- Mandatory retirement. Some occupations, such as commercial airline pilots, face mandatory retirement at a certain age.
- Force designation.
Changes of conditions
Firms that wish for an employee to exit of his or her own accord, but do not wish to pursue firing or forced resignation, may degrade the employee’s working conditions, hoping that he or she will leave “voluntarily”.
The employee may be moved to a different geographical location,assigned to an undesirable shift, given too few hours if part time, demoted (or relegated to a menial task) or assigned to work in uncomfortable conditions. Other forms of manipulation may be used such as being unfairly hostile to the employee and punishing him or her for things that are deliberately over looked with other employees.
Often, these tactics are done so that the employer won’t have to fill out termination papers in jurisdictions without at-will employment. Such tactics may amount to constructive dismissal, which is illegal in some jurisdictions.
1 Secretarial Correspondence with Shareholders and Debenture Holders
The Company Secretary needs to communicate with the shareholders as appropriate and to ensure that due regard is paid to their interests. They also need to act as a primary point of contact for institution a land other shareholders, especially with regard to matters of Corporate Governance. A Secretary needs to ensure that an annual general meeting is held in accordance with the requirements of the Companies Act and the Comp-he Articles of Association; obtaining internal and external agreement to all documentation for circulation to shareholders preparing and issuing notices of meetings and distributing proxy forms; trying to prepare directors for any shareholder questions and helping them create briefing materials; overseeing the preparations for security arrangements. At meetings, ensuring that proxy forms are correctly processed and that the voting is carried out accurately; coordinating the administration and minuting of meetings.
The Secretary can correspond with the shareholders through circulars, letters, etc. for making payment of dividends and interest; issuing documentation regarding rights issues and capitalization issues; maintaining good general shareholder relations; maintaining good relations with institutional shareholders and their investment committees.
Outward correspondence is always done on the company letterhead. There are certain references you need to type on every letter head as part of your reply. A shortcut is to set you up a template to include this information as it would be the same information you type every time you do an outward letter – this will save you time. Your template can include prompts so that everywhere you need to insert information, it will prompt you – very easy to set up. These references are;
- Current Date
- Author’s Initials
- Word Processor’s Initials
- The Contact Officer (usually the author)
- His secretary’s Telephone No.
- Your Company’s file no.
The layout of your letter will be predetermined by your company. Most businesses use BLOCK format – that’s everything down the left margin. No indentation.The layout of your letter will be predetermined by your company. Most businesses use BLOCK format – that’s everything down the left margin. No in denotation.
- Prepare a template for your outward letters to save you time.
- Never use punctuation in the address,opening and closing salutation (Dear and Yours faithfully).
- Do not use RE: in a heading. Just go straight to the subject reference of the letter.
- Always use a footer to record the location of the letter on your computer Post Offices prefer no punctuation in addresses.
- Always use the first paragraph to say WHY you’re writing to someone. Keep the content of the letter direct and to the point. Always use a gentle friendly closing sentence so as not to have an abrupt ending.
What is Personal Letter?
Personal letters are written to people whom we know well and to whom we need to convey some kind of message. Here we can write in a colloquial and informal manner. There are also letters that are neither formal nor completely personal.